Islamic State Training Camp Textbook: "Course in Monotheism"- Complete Text, Translation and Analysis (Part One)
05 August 2015
By Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi
Islamic State Training Camp Textbook: "Course in Monotheism"- Complete Text,
Translation and Analysis (Part Two)
Islamic State Training Camp Textbook: "Course in Monotheism"- Complete Text,
Translation and Analysis (Part Three)
Preface and Commentary
Section: Nawaqid al-Islam
Indeed the nawaqid al-Islam are numerous, having been mentioned by the 'ulama
in books on fiqh and chapters on al-ridda, but the Sheikh of Islam Muhammad
ibn Abd al-Wahhab (may God have mercy on him) mentioned 10 of the naqawid
because they are the most frequent in occurrence.
Nawaqid is the plural of naqid: and it is the opposite of al-ibram: and so
naqid is dissolution/nullification, thus it is said: naqd al-shay' when it is
dissolved after its ratification and holding.
And al-naqd may be physical or metaphorical:
Physically: like undoing the rope or braid.
Metaphorically: like dissolving the pledge, or nullifying the ablution. That
is, when man does what he has been ordered to and embraced, that is like the
bond or pledge, but when he comes upon what violates it from its principle,
he becomes as one who has dissolved and nullified it. And this is from the
section of revealing the meanings in the sense of the physical to understand
and approximate the meaning in the minds.
So when man utters the words of tawheed that comes as a pledge and bond from
him, to be embraced in its rights, obligations and requirements, but if he
does that which contravenes its principle, he has nullified it.
The first naqid: shirk in the worship of God Almighty
Shirk is the devotion of any type of worship to something besides God
Almighty and Exalted is He
And this is al-shirk al-akbar that God does not forgive through repentance
and the one who commits it when he comes upon God: for he is eternally damned
to Hellfire. God Almighty has said: "Indeed God does not forgive shirk
against Him but He forgives besides that whomso He wills." And He has said:
"Indeed the one who commits shirk against God has been forbidden by God from
Paradise, and he is damned to the Hellfire: and the wrong-doers have no
supporters." And this includes sacrificing to one besides God, like the one
who sacrifices to the jinn or tomb, or supplication to one besides God, or
circumambulating the tomb, or prostrating to one besides God.
Shirk in worship comes in four types:
1. Shirk al-Da'wah: i.e. calling on one besides God in what only God can do,
or supplicating to the dead, idols, rocks and the like, or calling on the
And du'a [supplication etc.] is an act of worship so whoever expends it on
one besides God has committed shirk. The Almighty has said: "And indeed the
places for prostration to God do not call on anyone with God."- al-Jinn 18 [Qur'an
And Imam Ahmad and the Ahl al-Sunnan narrated on the authority of al-Nu'man
bin Bashir that the Messenger of God (SAWS) said: "Du'a is worship."
2. Shirk al-Naya wa al-Qasd: the evidence is the Almighty's words: "Whoever
wishes for the dunya life and its fine aspect, We will pay them their deeds
in that regard and they will not suffer loss therein, for these are the ones
who will only have the Hellfire in the Hereafter and what they made therein
will be for nothing, and vain is what they do." Hud 15-16 [Qur'an 12:15-16].
Shirk al-Naya wa al-Irada may take place in acts of worship, for whosoever
intends in his worship the dunya, wealth, dignity, repute or the like, and
has not intended to get near to God Almighty and adhere to His command, has
fallen into this type of shirk.
Imam Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) says: "As for shirk in wills
and intentions, that is the sea that has no coast and the one who intends it
has been diminished, for whoso has willed in his deeds not to turn to God and
has intended something not to get near Him, and has sought reward from that,
has committed shirk in his will and intention. And al-ikhlas is: that one
should be devoted to God in one's deeds, words, will and intention. And this
is the sincere/original path: the path of Ibrahim that God ordered upon all
His servants, and not to accept any besides this path, and it is the truth of
Islam, just as the Almighty has said: "Whoso desires a religion other than
Islam, it will not be accepted from him and he will be among the losers in
the Hereafter." (The Comprehensive Response for whoever has asked about
healing treatment, p. 130).
As for what doesn't constitute acts of worship, it does not come under this
section, like the one who does a deed in the confines of desiring wealth or
something else besides it.
3. Shirk al-Ta'a: the evidence is the Almighty's words: "They have taken
their monks and their scholars as lords besides God and the Messiah Son of
Mary even as they have only been ordered to worship one God: and there is no
deity but Him: exalted is He above whatsoever they associate with Him." al-Tawba
31 [Qur'an 9:31].
The narration of al-Tirmidhi and others besides him on the authority of Adi
bin Hatem explain and clarify this ayah: he heard the Prophet (SAWS) reciting
this ayah ("They have taken their monks and their scholars as lords besides
God"). So I said to him: "Indeed we do not worship them!" He said: "Do they
not forbid what God allowed so you forbid it, and allow what God forbade so
you allow it?" So I said: "Indeed." He said: "For that is their act of
Abu Jubayr narrated in his tafsir through Abu al-Bakhtari on the authority of
Hadhifa regarding the Almighty's words: "They have taken their monks and
scholars as lords besides God." He said: "They did not worship them but
obeyed them in rebellions."
And in narration he said: "When they allowed something for them, they would
have it allowed, and when they forbade something for them, they forbade it."
The Sheikh of Islam Ibn Taymiyya (may God have mercy on him) said: "And these
are the ones who took their monks and scholars as lords- since they obeyed
them in allowing what God forbade and forbidding what God allowed- in two
One of them is that they know that they had modified the religion of God, so
they follow them in that modification, for they believe in allowing what God
forbade and forbidding what God allowed, following their leaders, despite
knowing that they have contravened the religion of the Messengers, so this is
disbelief, and God and His Messenger have made this shirk, even if they do
not pray and prostrate to them [these leaders etc.]. For whosoever places
under authority something besides this in contravening the religion- despite
knowing it is in contravention of the religion- and believes what that has
said besides what God and His Messenger have said, is a mushrik like these
Second: their belief and faith in forbidding the lawful and allowing the
forbidden should be firm, but they have obeyed them in rebelling against God.
Just as the Muslim does in acts of disobedience which he believes constitute
disobedience, so these people have the same judgement as is reserved for the
likes of the Ahl al-Dhanub. (Majmu' al-Fatawa 7/70)."
4. Shirk al-Mahabba: and the evidence is the Almighty's words: "And among the
people are those who take idols besides God loving them as love for God. But
those who believe have stronger love for God."- al-Baqara 165 [Qur'an 2:165]
And it is that one loves alongside God something besides Him with the same
affection as for God or stronger than that.
Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) said:
"Love besides God comes in two types:
One that diminishes the principle of tawheed and is shirk.
The other diminishes the perfection of al-ikhlas and love for God but does
not go outside the fold of Islam.
The first type is as the affection of the mushrikeen for their idols and
objects of worship. The Almighty has said: "And among the people are those
who take idols besides God loving them as love for God." And these are the
mushrikeen who love their idols, objects of worship and deities alongside God
just as they love God. For this is love of divinity and lordship. From this
follow fear, hope, worship and supplication. And this affection is nothing
but shirk which God does not forgive, and faith is not fulfilled except by
hostility to these idols and the strongest hatred of them and their people,
and being hostile to and waging war on them. Thus did God send all His
Messengers and sent down all His books and created the fire for the people of
this shirk affection while creating Paradise for whosoever wages war on them
for Him and to please Him.
The second type: affection for what God beautified for the souls: of women
and sons, gold, silver, fine branded horses, cattle and tilled land [cf.
Qur'an 3:14], so the affection one shows for it is that of craving like the
affection of one who is hungry for food and thirsty for water.
But this affection is of three types: if one loves them for the sake of God
and as a means by which one seeks to connect with Him and thus turn to please
Him and obey Him, this is rewarded and is from the sort of love for God and
is the one by which one connects with Him and one enjoys contentment with
these things. And this is the state for the most perfect of creation
[Muhammad]. Endeared to him from the world were women and good things: and
his affection for these two things were an aid to have affection for Him,
disseminate His message and implement His command.
But if one loves them for the agreement of one's nature, whim and will but
does not give them preference over what God loves and is content with but
rather obtains them through the rule of natural tendency, it is of the sort
of neutral matters and does not lead to consequence but it diminishes from
the perfection of one's affection for God and affection in Him.
But if one loves them as one's sole intention and object, and strives to
obtain them, gain mastery over them and gives them preference to what God
loves and is content with, it is injustice for one's soul and following for
The first is affection of those of precedence
The second is affection of those who are of the middle way
The third is affection of wrongdoers."
[Al-Ruh: 1 p. 254]
The second naqid: the one who places between himself and God intermediaries,
calling on them and asking them for mediation, and trusting in them. This is
disbelief by consensus.
This naqid is among the most frequent in occurrency of the nawaqid and the
most dangerous to man, because many of those called in the name of Islam and
don't know Islam or its truth have placed between them and God- Almighty and
Exalted is He- intermediaries whom they call on to reveal misfortunes,
relieve griefs and provide deliverance from worries. And these people are
kuffar by the consensus of the Muslims, because God- Almighty and Exalted is
He- did not created Jinn and men except to worship Him alone having no
partner, just as the Almighty has said: "And I have not created the Jinn and
men except to worship Me"- al-Dhariyat 56 [Qur'an 51:56]
So whoever places between himself and God intermediaries calling on them,
imploring them and asks them for necessities, has committed shirk against
God, and there is no difference between him and the mushrikeen to whom were
our Prophet (SAWS) was sent.
The Almighty has said: "Indeed, for God religion is pure. And those who have
taken those besides Him as protectors have said: 'We only worship them so
they can bring us closer to God in position.' Indeed God will judge between
them concerning that in which they differ. Indeed, God does not guide the one
who is a liar and disbeliever." Al-Zumar 3 [Qur'an 39:3]
The third naqid: whoever does not declare the mushrikeen to be disbelievers,
or doubts their disbelief, or has declared their madhhab to be valid.
The issue of the one who does not declare the disbeliever to be a
disbeliever, or doubts that person's disbelief, must be defined before the
handing down of the ruling on the one described as such. And that is by
knowing the types of disbelief, and who are the disbelievers who are to be
considered disbelievers but have not been declared as such or whose disbelief
has been doubted.
The 'ulama- may God have mercy on them- have made clear that the one who has
not declared the disbeliever to be a disbeliever or doubted their disbeliever
is himself a disbeliever, and they have made clear that this declaration is
not done so immediately but rather that the issue is something in-depth, and
whoever does not understand the conditions of this naqid, the lack of his
understanding leads to fault in takfir.
. For the one who does not declare the disbeliever to be a disbeliever may
not know his state, as one not knowing that so-and-so is from a people
denounced for disbelief or has done a deed to be declared of disbelief, for
this is acceptable and does not factor into the equation. And this is called
ignorance of state.
. But if he knows his state, one is to examine him with respect to the
disbeliever who has not been declared a disbeliever, or whose disbelief has
been doubted or whose madhab has been declared valid.
And the disbelievers in this regard are of two types:
1. Original disbeliever: these are all who have not belonged to the path of
Islam and have not professed the two shahadas, like the Jews, Christians,
Zoroastrians, Hindus and those like them.
As for these people, whoever does not declare them to be disbelievers, or
doubts their disbelief, is himself a disbeliever, because their disbelief is
specified to him in the book, Sunna, and is known from the religion of Islam
by necessity. For the one who does not declare them to be disbelievers:
either he is declaring the book and Sunna to be false, or is ignorant of the
principle of Islam and its truth. And this invalidates his Islam because he
has abandoned one of the pillars of there is no deity but God, and it is
disbelief in taghut.
The distinguished scholar Abd Allah Abu Batin (may God have mercy on him):
"The Muslims have agreed by consensus on the disbelief of whoever does not
declare the Jews or Christians to be disbelievers, or doubts their disbelief,
and we are certain that most of them are ignorant." (Message of Victory)
2. The disbeliever affiliated with Islam: that is the one who has professed
the two shahadas, but has committed a deed of disbelief that takes him
outside of the fold of Islam.
And these people: their disbelief differs according to clarity and hidden
nature according to divisions
1. The one whose disbelief is clearly affirmed shown by the affirmation of
the book and the Sunna, like the mushrikeen who call on and worship those
besides God, for these people, their deeds are contrary to the principle of
the words of tawheed and opposite to them in every respect, and whoever does
not declare them to be disbelievers is one of the following:
. Either he considers their actions valid and affirms them for these deeds,
in which case he is a disbeliever like them even if he has not committed
shirk himself, because he has validated and affirmed the deed of shirk, and
this is disbelief, and protection is in God.
. Or he says that their deeds constitute disbelief and shirk, but he does not
declare them to be disbelievers giving precedence to their excuse in
ignorance: this person is not a disbeliever because he has not validated or
affirmed their deeds, but the suspicion of their excuse in ignorance has been
displayed to him, so he is not to be declared a disbeliever for the suspicion
he has been exposed to, but if the limits ward off the suspicions, with all
the more reason one must declare takfir. And the one whose Islam has been
established with certainty does not leave it except with certainty, and the
precedence given to their excuse in ignorance prevents takfir on him at first
until the texts are made clear to him and the suspicion is removed from him.
Then if he does not declare them to be disbelievers despite that, it is
The distinguished scholar Suleiman bin Abd Allah said on the one who rejects
declaring denouncing, doubts, or is ignorant of the disbelief of grave
worshippers: if he doubts their disbelief or is ignorant of it, then the
evidence is made clear to him from the book of God and the Sunna of the
Prophet: if he still doubts after that and rejects it, he is a kafir by the
consensus of the 'ulama on the basis that whoever doubts the disbelief of the
disbelievers is a disbeliever (Awthaq Arai al-Imaan dhaman Majmu'at al-Tawheed:
And Sheikh Muhammad bin Abd al-Latif Al al-Sheikh (may God have mercy on him)
said: "Whoever designates some of the places for His servants or believes
that whoever stops at these places need not perform the Hajj, there is to be
no doubt about his disbelief in which there is the smell of the odor of
Islam. And whoever doubts his disbelief must have the proof shown to him and
a statement that this is disbelief and shirk, and that adopting these stones
is mere analogies contrary to the rituals of God that God placed to
constitute worship of God. And if the proof has been established upon him but
he insists, there is no doubt about his disbelief." (al-Darar al-Sunniya:
2. The one against whom takfir is likely prone to suspicion, like those who
judge by means of besides what God has revealed and those like them. For
these people, even if their disbelief is definite for anyone who has verified
the case, the arising of doubt is likely so the one who has not declared them
to be disbelievers is not to be declared a disbeliever, unless the proof has
been established to him, and doubt has been lifted and removed, and he knows
that the ruling of God upon them is takfir upon them.
3. The one against whom takfir is a matter of ijtihad in which there is
disagreement among the Muslims, like the ruling on the one who abandons
prayer and the like. On this matter, the one who does not see disbelief in
the committer of the act is not to be declared a disbeliever nor is he to be
declared an innovator provided his principles are the principles of the Ahl
al-Sunna wa al-Jamaat.
The fourth naqid: Whoever believes that guidance besides that of the Prophet
(SAWS) is more perfect than his guidance, or that ruling besides his is
better than his ruling- e.g. the one who prefers the ruling of the tawagheet
over his ruling- is a disbeliever.
The Prophet (SAWS) used to say in the Friday sermon: "As for what follows:
the best hadith is the book of God, and the best guidance is the guidance of
Muhammad."- narrated by Muslim.
And it is well known that the religion of Islam is built on the two
principles of the book and the Sunna, and the guidance of the Prophet (SAWS)
is a report for the religion, implementation of it, and an interpretation for
it, so whoever claims that guidance besides that of the Prophet (SAWS) is
more perfect than his guidance, has claimed that something besides the
religion of Islam is more perfect than the religion of Islam, and this is
disbelief by the consensus of the Muslims.
And God- Almighty and Exalted is He- has entrusted to this Ummah that it
should have the most perfect religion and the most complete blessing.
The Almighty has said: "Today I have fulfilled for you your religion and
completed my blessing upon you, satisfied in Islam as a religion for you."
So what God has been pleased with for us is the most perfect of religions,
and the most preferred and easiest of them, and the Prophet (SAWS) is the one
who brought this religion, explained it and implemented it, so his guidance
is the religion, and the religion is comprehensive, so there is no religion
more perfect than it and no guidance more perfect than that of the Prophet
God Almighty has said: "Indeed the religion with God is Islam."- Al Imran 19
And the Almighty has said: "And whoever desires a religion other than Islam,
it will not be accepted from him, and he will be among the losers in the
Hereafter."- Al Imran 85 [Qur'an 3:85]
And His words: Whoever believes that ruling besides his is better than his
ruling, is as the one who prefers the ruling of the tawagheet over his
This is an issue of ruling by not what God has sent down, and the one who
rules by not what God has sent down to him is of two sorts:
1. The principle of his ruling is by the law and he has no marja' or source
but Shari'a, then he violates it and rules by what violates it in some
2. He replaces Shari'i ruling- true and clear as it is- with something else
and gives it its place, while annulling Shari'i ruling and gives it its place
as another ruling, whether in one ruling or more.
The distinction will come in the two states.
Sheikh Muhammad bin Ibrahim (may God have mercy on him) said: "And the ruling
of God's law alone without anything besides it as partner is the worship of
God alone with nothing besides Him, since included in the two shahadas is
that God alone is worshipped with no partner for Him, and the Messenger of
God (SAWS) is the one to be followed, and the one to have ruling in what he
brought alone, and the swords of jihad have not been bared except for that,
and to implement it in reality, entrusting and ruling by it in the event of
And Imam al-Shinqiti (may God have mercy on him) said: "Committing shirk
against God in His ruling, and committing shirk against Him in worshipping
Him are all of one meaning, and there is no distinction between the two in
adjudication. For the one who follows a system not that of God and a
legislation not that of God is the one who worships idols and prostrates to
idols, and there is no distinction between the two in the final decision in
any respects, for the two are one, and both constitute shirk against God." (Adhwa'
al-Bayan lil-Shinqiti- 7/162.
Indeed ruling by besides what God has revealed may constitute greater
disbelief bringing outside the path, or lesser disbelief not bringing outside
And the one who rules by besides what God has revealed will come under one of
The first state: that he rules by besides what God has revealed in a case or
the like for a motive of bribery, whim or other despite his embrace of God's
ruling in principle.
The second state: that he brings laws from himself and rules through them by
The third state: that he adopts laws from other constitutions and rules
through them by choice.
The fourth state: that he rules through the laws of his predecessor by
The fifth state: that he rules through laws violating God's law out of
The sixth state: that he rules through laws violating God's law out of
. The first state: the one who rules by besides what God has revealed in a
case and the like with his knowledge and acceptance of the obligation of
ruling by what God has revealed but does otherwise out of motive of bribery
or preference has deviated from the ruling of the law with his
acknowledgement in himself that he is in error and has not placed the ruling
violating God's law as a replacement for the ruling of the law. So this
disbelief of his is lesser disbelief that does not go outside the path. In
this regard one should note the words of Ibn Abbas may God be pleased with
them both. For he said that in the pledge of the Bani Amiyya who were ruling
by the law but wrongdoing occurred on the part of some of them in ruling, but
they did not place rulings violating God's ruling as a replacement for the
ruling of God and make people embrace them, for the ruling on contemporaneous
laws was not known except in the al-Tatar pledge.
Muhammad bin Ibrahim Al al-Sheikh may God have mercy on him said: "And as for
the second type of disbelief from the divisions of disbelief of ruling by
besides what God has revealed, it is the one which does not go outside from
the path. For it has come forth that the tafsir of Ibn Abbas (may God be
pleased with them both) of the words of God- Almighty and Exalted is He: "And
whoever does not rule by what God has revealed, such persons are the
disbelievers"- his tafsir on that has included that division, and that in his
words (may God be pleased with him) regarding the verse: "Disbelief beneath
disbelief" and his words also: "Those who adhere to it are not in disbelief."
That applies to bringing one's tendency and whim to bear on ruling in the
case by besides what God has revealed despite one's belief that the ruling of
God and His Messenger is Truth, and his own acknowledgment of his error and
offsetting of guidance."
And he- may God have mercy on him- also said: "And as for the one about whom
has been said, 'Disbelief beneath disbelief,' if he appeals to besides God
with his belief that he is insubordinate and the rule of God is truth, this
person is the one from whom it comes once or the like, as for the one who has
made laws to be organized and submitted to, he is a disbeliever, even if they
say: 'We have made a mistake and the rule of law is more just.' (Fatwas of
Muhammad bin Ibrahim: 12/280)
And Imam Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) said: "Ruling by besides
what God has revealed touches upon greater disbelief and lesser disbelief
according to the ruler's state. For if he believes in the obligation of
ruling by what God has revealed in the particular instance and that he
deserves reprimand, this is lesser disbelief." (Madarij al-Salikeen: Part I:
Take note of the words of Sheik Ibn Ibrahim: in the case, and his words: once
and the like.
And the words of Ibn al-Qayyim: in the particular instance.
This therefore shows that the one who places ruling violating God's ruling as
established and obligatory is not part of this division- by which I mean
lesser disbelief- but rather the types of greater disbelief.
. The second state: that is that he brings laws from himself and rules
through them by choice. The ruling on this is that it constitutes greater
disbelief taking one outside the path and that is that when one brings laws
from oneself and knows that God has ruled and distinguished in the matter,
but despite that changes them, replaces them and makes people embrace them,
such a person is legislating alongside God, contending with God in His lordly
nature and his rule, and placing one's short and corrupt mind and opinion on
the rank of the knowledge and wisdom of God. This is one of the greatest
points of naqid contrary to the shahada of there is no deity but God and
Muhammad is the Messenger of God.
. The third state: that is that he adopts laws from other constitutions and
rules through them by choice. The ruling on this is that it constitutes
greater disbelief as well, because in this one seeks to replace the rulings
of God with the rulings of one besides Him and to push away the ruling of God
offer forth ruling besides His own over His ruling, and there is no
difference between bringing them oneself, adopting them from copied books, or
adopting them from other constitutions: for all this has the common element
of being made as a replacement for the ruling of God and establishing it
instead of His place in ruling and distinguishing among the people.
. The fourth state: that is that he rules through the laws of his predecessor
by choice. The ruling on this is that this constitutes greater disbelief as
well, because the disbelief arises through implementing the rule of these
laws replacing the ruling of God, whether he himself devised them or another
, The fifth state: that is that he rules through laws violating God's law out
If the one ruling by besides Shari'a claims he is forced, one must take these
issues into consideration regarding his words:
1. That he must not be ruling over the Muslims but rather must relinquish
rule, but if he claims he is compelled and cannot escape from rule, he must
choose death over the committing of disbelief of aggression because the
corruption of his killing is less harmful than his ruling among the people by
besides the law and subjecting them to the rule of taghut. Thus his killing
is a private matter of corruption while ruling by besides the law is a
general matter of corruption.
Sheikh Suleiman bin Sahman (may God have mercy on him) said: "Were the desert
and civilization to fight each other till they should depart, it would be
more contemptible for them to appoint a taghut in the land ruling contrary to
the Shari'a of Islam, with which God sent His Messenger (SAWS)."
2. If he is devoid of choice in his actions, it is not right he should rule
over one besides himself when he has not ruled himself.
3. His ruling by besides the law is a pretext to project the people into
disbelief, in that the people are content with the ruling of besides the law
and appealing to taghut, thus they fall into disbelief, and fitna in religion
is worse than killing.
4. Ruling by the law is worship and appealing to the law is worship, and it
is not allowed for the people to be compelled to worship besides God and be
subjected and submitted to rule besides His.
. The sixth state: and that is that he rules by laws contrary to that of God
out of ignorance.
Before ruling, one must know that ignorance is one of the obstacles to takfir,
but it is not absolute, for the one of ignorance will only be excused if he
cannot remove ignorance from himself such as that he is raised in a desert
wilderness far from 'ilm and the 'ulama, or there will be a report of a
pledge in Islam and he does not know the ruling of what constitutes disbelief
in it, but if he can remove the ignorance from himself, then he has fallen
short in that and will not be excused.
The Sheikh of Islam Ibn Taymiyya (may God have mercy on him) said in the
response to the people of logic: "The proof of God in His Messenger has led
to the realization of knowledge. So it is not among the conditions of the
proof of God the knowledge of those called that. Therefore the disbelievers'
avoidance of listening to the Qur'an and considering it is not an obstacle to
establishing the proof of God upon them, similarly their avoidance of the
transmission from the Prophets and studying the remains of them does not
prevent the proof if the capability is there." (Majmu' al-Fatawa 1/112-3)
Note: it is not made conditional in the following of the ruling of disbelief
on the one who commits it that he knows his action is disbelief, but rather
it is sufficient that he knows God forbade it.
So if man knows that God forbade something, even if he did not known that it
is disbelief, he commits disbelief in his action even if he did not know his
action is disbelief. The lines of evidence for that are numerous, including:
- Those who derided the companions knew the forbidden nature of their action
but did not know it is disbelief. Despite that, the ruling of God on their
disbelief was so, just as the Almighty said: "And when you ask them, they
will undoubtedly say- 'We were only jesting and playing'. Say: 'Was it God,
His verses and His Messenger you were mocking? Make no excuse: you have
disbelieved after your belief."- Tawba 65-6 [Qur'an 9:65-6]
- Salma bin Sakhr al-Bayadhi- may God be pleased with him- knew the forbidden
nature of sexual intercourse in the daytime of Ramadan but he did not know
that the forbidden deed required repentance for it, so after he came upon his
woman, he came to the Prophet (SAWS) and informed him, so the Messenger of
God (SAWS) made him embrace repentance, and he did not let it slip because of
his lack of knowledge of that.
The fifth naqid: whoever hates something the Messenger (SAWS) brought even if
he implements it, is a disbeliever.
And this is by the agreement of the 'ulama, just as that transmitted on the
one of 'belief' and others besides him.
God Almighty has said ruling on the disbelief of whoever hates what he
revealed to His Messenger: "And those who disbelieve- for them is misery. And
He will render their deeds worthless. That is because they disliked what God
revealed- so He rendered their deeds worthless." Muhammad 8-9 [Qur'an 47:8-9]
Hating anything the Messenger (SAWS) brought, whether from words or deeds- is
a type of hypocrisy of belief for which the one responsible will be in the
bottom-most pit of the Hellfire.
Hatred of something from the religion comes in two forms:
1. Hating something from the religion from the aspect of its existence as
legislation, so this is disbelief.
2. Hating it not from this perspective but hating it on account of one's
disposition, despite one's affirmation of it and implementing it as right,
such as when the Almighty said: "Fighting has been prescribed for you though
you dislike it." This is hatred for something on account of loss for souls.
And so the one who hates bringing out zakat on account of his miserly nature
not out of hatred for legislation itself, this person is not a disbeliever.
The sixth naqid: whoever mocks something from the religion of the Messenger
(SAWS), its recompense or its consequence. The evidence is the Almighty's
words: "And when you ask them, they will undoubtedly say- 'We were only
jesting and playing'. Say: 'Was it God, His verses and His Messenger you were
mocking? Make no excuse: you have disbelieved after your belief."- Tawba 65-6
Mocking something the Messenger brought is disbelief by the consensus of the
Muslims, even if one did not really intend to mock, just as though one were
Ibn Jubayr, Ibn Abi Hatem, Abu al-Sheikh and others besides them have
reported on the authority of Abd Allah ibn Omar: he said: a man in the Tabuk
raid said in the council one day: 'I have not seen reciters of the Qur'an
like these, more covetous within, more lying with their tongues, and more
cowardly in encountering the enemy.' A man in the council said: 'You have
lied! But you are a hypocrite, so I will indeed inform the Messenger of God
(SAWS). So that man informed the Messenger of God (SAWS), and he revealed the
Qur'an. Abd Allah said: 'So I saw him clinging to the rope of the Messenger
of God [SAWS]'s she-camel and wounded in the foot, saying: 'Oh Messenger of
God, we were only jesting and playing.' And the Prophet (SAWS) said: 'Was it
God, His verses and His Messenger you were mocking?'
So as regards their words: 'We were only jesting and playing'- i.e. we did
not really mean to mock, but only intended to jest and play, by which we cut
the harshness of the path, as in some of the narrations of the hadith, but
despite that God pronounced them disbelievers, because jesting and playing do
not enter through this door. So they have become disbelievers through this
talk, despite the fact that they were previously believers.
Mockery may take one of two forms:
1. Mockery of something from the religion, like one mocking prayer, the call
to prayer, or the like from what constitutes an important ritual. This is
2. Mocking one who applies the Sunna and implements the law, and this can
take on two forms:
a) Mocking him for the fact of the application of the Sunna and implementing
the law, in which case is mockery of the religion. And this is disbelief.
b) Mockery of the person himself and not for the outward signs of the Sunna
and religion that are obligatory upon him, This is moral turpitude but not
Important note: Every Muslim must cut off the ones who mock the religion of
God and what the Messenger (SAWS) brought, even if they are the nearest of
people to him, and must not sit with them, lest he be among them. Just as
God- Almighty and Exalted is He- said: "And indeed He has revealed to you in
the book that when you hear the verses disbelieved in and mocked, do not sit
with them until they enter into another discourse. Indeed you would otherwise
be like them. Indeed God will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers in the
Hell, all of them."- Nisa 140 [Qur'an 4:140]
So whoever hears the verses of God disbelieved in and mocked and sits with
them and does not isolate them, he is like them in disbelief and leaving
Islam, just as the Almighty has said: "Gather those who have been unjust and
their associates."- i.e. their followers and ilk.
The seventh naqid is al-sihr [sorcery], including al-sarf and al-atf. So the
one who practices this or is pleased with it has become a disbeliever. And
the evidence is the Almighty's words: "They cannot hurt anyone with it except
by God's permission, and they learn what harms them and does not profit
them." Al-Baqara 102 [Qur'an 2:102]
In the language, the word al-sihr means what is concealed and whose essence
In law: complexes and magic by which the sorcerer aims to use the devils to
harm the bewitched.
And it has been said in defining it besides that.
Al-Shinqiti (may God have mercy on him) said: "Know that sorcery cannot have
one all-encompassing definition, owing to the large number of different types
that come under it, and the shared extent between them cannot be verified,
gathering some together, excluding others. And thus the opinions of the 'ulama
in defining it have differed greatly."
And al-sihr has a truth to it just as is the madhhab of the Ahl al-Sunna wa
al-Jamaat, contrary to the Mu'tazilites.
The distinguished scholar Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) said:
"And this is a difference in which the narratives from the Companions and
Predecessors have not repeated, and on this the jurists, people of
interpretation and hadith, lords of hearts from the people of tasawwuf have
agreed, and it is what the people of mind know in general. And al-sihr which
influences in illness, firmness, state, complexes, love, hatred and forgery
and besides that is among the narratives present and known by the people in
general." (Bada'I al-Fa'wa'id: 2/227)
Among the aspects of al-sihr are al-sarf and al-atf.
1. Al-sarf: turning man from what he loves like turning him from loving his
wife to hating her.
2. Al-atf: sorcery work like al-sarf, but it bends man from what he does not
love to loving it by Satanic means.
The ruling on sorcery: the 'ulama- may God have mercy on them- have differed
on the sorcerer: is he a disbeliever or not?
The talk of al-Musannaf (may God have mercy on him) has supported the notion
that he is a disbeliever, according to the Almighty's words: "But the two
angels do not teach anyone until they say: 'We are a trial, so do not
disbelieve.'" And this is the madhhab of Imam Ahmad, Malik and Abu Hanifa
[i.e. the Hanbalis, Malikis and Hanafis], and thus is the majority.
But Shafi'i (may God have mercy on him) held that if one learns sorcery, it
is to be said to him: Describe to us your sorcery. So if he describes as
demanded for disbelief, he is a disbeliever, but if he doesn't reach the
point of disbelief, he is not a disbeliever.
The distinguished scholar al-Shinqiti may God have mercy on him said:
"Verification in this matter is distinction. For if the sorcery is from what
in which besides God is honoured, like the stars, jinn and others besides
that from what leads to disbelief, then it is disbelief without dispute. And
of this type is the sorcery of Harut and Marut mentioned in Sura al-Baqara.
So it is disbelief without dispute, as shown by the Almighty's words:
"Suleiman did not disbelieve but the devils did, teaching the people
sorcery," as well as the Almighty's words: "And the two do not teach anyone
until they say: 'We are a trial, so do not disbelieve.'" And the Almighty's
words: "And they have known that the one who bought it should have no good in
the Hereafter." And the Almighty's words: "The sorcerer is not successful
wherever he comes from."
But if the sorcery does not necessitate disbelief, like seeking help in the
properties of some things from cosmetics and the like, this is strongly
forbidden, but does not lead the one who commits it to disbelief- (His
discussion (may God have mercy on him))
. Know that the sorcerer in both cases must be killed on the basis of
authentic saying, because he is a corrupter in the land, separating between
man and his wife. And his remaining on the face of the earth harbours a great
danger and great corruption on individuals and communities, and in killing
him, his corruption is cut out and the servants and land are cleansed of his
On the authority of Bajala bin Abda, he said: "I was writing for Bin Mu'awiya,
so a letter came to us of Omar bin al-Khattab: The time has come to kill
every sorcerer and female sorcerer. So we killed three sorcerers."
And there is no disagreement among the Companions on the killing of the
The al-nashra ruling: the removal of sorcery from the bewitched.
The distinguished scholar Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) said:
"The removal of sorcery from the bewitched is of two types:
One of the two: removing sorcery with its like, and it is the one who worked
the devil, and he must note the sound words, that is: 'Sorcery can only be
removed by a sorcerer." So the nashir and muntashar get near to Satan in what
he loves, this his work is invalidated from the bewitched.
The second: al-nashra by incantation, seeking refuge, medications and
permissable du'as, for this is lawful.
. Resorting to sorcerers, fortunetellers, astronomers and prognosticators for
their query only without verification is one of the very great sins, and the
one who commits it, his prayer will not be accepted for 40 days. The SAWS
said: "Whoever comes to a prognosticator and asks him about something, his
prayer will not be accepted for forty nights."- narrated by Muslim.
So if he asks them and believes them he is a disbeliever in what was revealed
to our Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), according to what the judge narrated on
authentic transmission on the authority of Abu Huraira: he said: the
Messenger of God (SAWS) said: "Whoever comes to a prognosticator or
fortuneteller and believes him in what he says has committed disbelief in
what was revealed to Muhammad (SAWS)."
The eighth naqid: supporting the mushrikeen and aiding them against the
And the evidence is the Almighty's words: "Whoever of you takes them for
allies is one of them. Indeed God does not guide the wrongdoing people."- al-Ma'ida
51 [Qur'an 5:51]. The Imam Ibn Jazim (may God have mercy on him) said:
"Indeed the one who helps it [disbelief] is a disbeliever from the all of the
disbelievers. And this is a truth on which not two of the Muslims disagree."-
(al-Mahall, part 11, p. 71).
The Sheikh of Islam Ibn Taymiyya (may God have mercy on him) said in Majmu'
al-Fatawa 17/300 after citing God Almighty's words: "Oh you who believe, do
not take the Jews and Christians for allies" to his words: "Oh you who
believe, whoever of you abandons his religion...": So the ones addressed in
the prohibition on alliance with the Jews and Christians are the ones
addressed in the verse on apostasy, and it is well known that this pertains
to all generations of the Ummah, and it is thus the prohibition on alliance
with the disbelievers and while it is that whoever allies with them is among
those addressed, and so he is of them, it is also that whoever allies with
them apostasises from the religion of Islam does not harm Islam at all, but
God will bring a people He loves and who love Him and will align with the
believers without the disbelievers, striving in the path of God and not
fearing a painful blow, just as He said in the first matter: "So if these
people disbelieve in it, we have entrusted in it a people who are not
disbelievers in it." These people are the ones who have not entered into
Islam, and these are the ones who have left it after entering into it who
will not harm Islam at all, rather God will establish whoever believes in it
with what His Messenger brought, giving victory to His religion till the
establishment of the Hour."
And Sheikh Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab (may God have mercy on him) said:
"Indeed the evidence for the disbelief of the Muslim if when he commits shirk
against God or sides with the mushrikeen against the Muslims, even if he does
not commit shirk, doing much to heed the words of God, His Messenger and the
words of the reliable Ahl al-'Ilm. (al-Rasa'il al-Shakhsiya, pg. 272)
And Sheikh Abd Allah bin Abd al-Latif Al Sheikh (may God have mercy on him)
said as such in al-Durar al-Sunniya (10/429): "Whoever aids and assists them
in any way against the Muslims, has committed clear apostasy."
The ninth naqid: whoever believes that some people are allowed to leave the
Shari'a of Muhammad (SAWS), just as Khidr was allowed to leave the Shari'a of
Moses, peace be upon him, is a disbeliever.
And that includes declaring God Almighty's words to be false: "And that this
is a straight path, so follow it and do not follow the other paths for it
will separate you from His path"; and the Almighty's words: "Whoever desires
a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him, and he will be
among the losers in the Hereafter."- Al Imran 85 [Qur'an 3:85]
And the Prophet (SAWS) made his religion to supersede all religions and his
book to supersede all books, and God sent him to all people, so whoever does
not believe in him and follow him is of those in error in this world and
those in ruin on the Day of Judgment.
Al-Nisa'i and others besides him have narrated on the authority of the
Prophet (SAWS): that he saw in the hand of Omar bin al-Khattab (may God be
pleased with him) a piece of paper from the Torah, so he said: "Are you
confused, oh Ibn al-Khattab? I brought it to you white and pure. By the One
in Whose hand my soul is, were Moses alive today, he would only be allowed to
follow me."- narrated by Ahmad and al-Bayhafi and it is sound.
The tenth naqid: turning away from the religion of God Almighty, not learning
it or implementing it. And the evidence is the Almighty's words: "And who is
more unjust than the one who is reminded of the verses of His Lord, then
turns away from them. Indeed We will take retribution from the criminals."-
al-Sajdah 22 [Qur'an 32:22]
The meaning of turning away that is considered a naqid to Islam: it is
turning away from learning the principle of religion by which man is Muslim,
even if he is ignorant of the details of the religion, because it may be that
only the 'ulama and students of 'ilm undertake this.
The distinguished scholar Sheikh Suleiman bin Sahman has said: Man does not
disbelieve unless he turns away from leaning the principle of religion by
which man enters into Islam, not by abandoning the obligations and desired
And what Sheikh Suleiman means in his words: "Not by abandoning the
obligations and desired things"- he means abandoning some of the obligations
that he has abandoned constituting disobedience but not disbelief, and it is
not absolute abandonment and the ruling on that, for indeed the stipulation
among the Ahl al-Sunna is that abandoning the essence of implementation is
disbelief, like abandoning prayer according to the consensus sayings of the
Companions and Followers.
And the distinguished scholar Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) said
in 'Madarij al-Salikeen': "And as for greater disbelief, it is of five
So he mentioned them, and then said: "And as for disbelief of turning away,
it is that he turns away his hearing and heart from the Messenger, neither
believing him nor declaring him to be a liar, neither being loyal to him nor
hostile to him, and in the final decision does not incline to what he
From this clarification for the meaning of turning away it becomes clear to
you many a ruling from the tomb worshippers in this time of ours and before.
For they are turning away comprehensively from what the Messenger (SAWS)
brought in their hearings and hearts, and they do not incline to sound advice
and righteous guidance, so the likes of these people are disbelievers for
their turning away.
The Almighty has said: "And those who have disbelieved are turning away from
that which they were warned about."
And there is no difference in all these nawaqid between the one who is
joking, the one who is serious and the one who is afraid: only the compelled.
And the evidence is the Almighty's words: "Whoever disbelieves in God after
his faith unless he is compelled but still believes in his heart, but those
who choose to disbelieve in their hearts, upon them is anger from God and for
them is a great torment. That is so because they desired this world's life
over the Hereafter."- al-Nahl 106-7 [Qur'an 16:106-7]
For God has not excused these people the one who has been compelled despite
his heart being secure in faith, and as for the one besides this, he has
disbelieved after his faith, whether he has done it out of fear, greed,
flattery, or attachment to one's omeland, people, tribe or wealth, or he has
done it in the face of jesting or something else besides that for various
reasons: the only exception is the one compelled, but the verse shows this
comes in two types:
1. As per his words- 'Except the one who has been compelled'- so God Almighty
has not made any exception but for the compelled, and it is known that man is
not compelled except in talk or deeds, but as for the heart's creed, no one
is compelled in this regard.
2. As per the Almighty's words: 'That is so because they desired this world's
life over the Hereafter': so it has been made clear that this disbelief and
torment have not been because of belief, ignorance, hatred of the religion,
or love of the religion, but rather its cause is that for him in that he sees
the fortune of the fortunes of this world, so he has preferred that to
religion. And God- Exalted is He- knows best.
Disbelief is of two sorts
The first type: disbelief that takes one outside the path.
And this is of five types:
The first type: kufr al-takdhib, whose evidence is the Almighty's words: "And
who is more unjust than the one who devises a lie against God or declares
Truth to be falsehood when it comes to him? Is there not in Hell a sufficient
abode for the disbelievers?"- al-Ankabut 68 [Qur'an 29:68]
So declaring the Qur'an to be false or a part of it or even a verse, or
declaring the authentic Sunna established from the Prophet (SAWS) is a
greater disbelief going out from the path.
The second type: disbelief of defiance and haughtiness with believing: the
evidence is the Almighty's words: "And when we said to the angels: 'Prostrate
to Adam'; they prostrated except Iblis, who refused, was haughty and was
among the disbelievers."- al-Baqara 34 [Qur'an 2:34]
So the one who disdains from worshiping God or following the Prophet (SAWS)
is a disbeliever going outside the path of Islam.